Pear - the southern fruit, the taste of which is known from childhood. Thanks to the work of breeders, fruit crops can now be found in cities with a warm and unstable climate. Zaveya Pear is a new unpretentious variety that has gained great popularity among gardeners. Strengths and weaknesses, peculiarities of cultivation, description of Zaveya pear will help to understand why the variety is in demand among summer residents.
Description of Zaveya Pear Variety
Zaveya pear was bred by Belarusian scientists in 2016, by crossing the varieties Bere gray, Dulya Ostsee and Oil Rose. Zaveya refers to winter, high-yielding varieties, withstands temperatures up to - 30 ° С without shelter.
The plant is medium height, grows up to 4 m in height. Zaveya pear forms a pyramidal, sparse crown formed by light brown shoots. Curved branches have a dark emerald, glossy leaves, small in size. In the spring, in the period of flowering, the crown is covered with numerous white flowers. For the abundant fruiting of pears, Zavei requires pollinator varieties that bloom at the same time.
Characteristics of pear fruit
Deliciously green fruit pear Zaveya truncated shape and weighing 180 g have a juicy, fragrant pulp. The skin is thin, but dense, so that the crop is stored for a long time and tolerates long-term transportation. Freshness and taste with proper storage of fruits retain for 6 months.
Pros and cons of Zavea
Pear Zaveya, like any plant, has positive and negative qualities. The advantages of gardeners include:
- high and stable yield;
- good appearance and taste;
- long storage;
- frost resistance;
- opportunity to grow in regions with unstable climate.
Disadvantages of Pear Zaveya:
- in case of non-observance of the rules of care, rapid accession of diseases;
- grows poorly on clayey, heavy soil.
Optimal conditions for growing
For good development and generous fruiting, you need to know where the pear tree likes to grow. The Zaveya pear prefers to grow on slightly acidic, fertile, light soil with groundwater deposition of at least 2 m.
For planting seedling fit bright place, protected from drafts. Since the tree is medium sized and does not like shading, the place for planting should have a sufficient area.
Planting and care for Zavea pear
Land for planting pears prepared in the fall. To do this, dig up the soil, make organic and mineral fertilizers:
- when grown on loam when digging in 1 square. m add 60 g of superphosphate, 6 kg of rotted compost or manure, 15 g of potassium;
- humus and clay are added to the sandy soil.
Before planting, you need to choose the right sapling. It is bought from trusted suppliers, in gardening or in nurseries. A healthy young plant should have well developed roots and a healthy stem without mechanical damage and signs of disease.
Zavei pear sapling is better to purchase at 1-2 years of age. The young plant must have lateral branches from 12 to 30 cm long. They must be elastic, without growths and signs of disease. It is better to purchase seedlings with a closed root system, but if the roots are open, they are wrapped with a damp cloth during transportation.
Before planting, the root system of the pear is pruned by 10 cm and kept for about 6 hours in warm water.
Zaveya's pear is planted in the spring after warming up the soil and in the fall 3 weeks before the onset of frost. Spring planting does not give 100% survival rate, since upon the onset of warm weather, the seedling begins to spend forces on bud break, to the detriment of the root system buildup.
A month before landing they prepare a landing hole. It should be 1 m in diameter and 0.5 m deep. The excavated soil is mixed with mineral fertilizers, organic matter and placed with a hillock in the hole. The earth is shed and left until moisture is completely absorbed, and fertilizers are dissolved. Plants are planted at a distance of 5 m from each other.
The seedlings straighten the root system and set on a mound. The hole is gradually filled with earth, tamping each layer so that an air cushion does not form. In a properly planted seedling, the root neck should be 5 cm above the ground. Since the young plant is firmly held in the ground only for the second year after planting, it needs support.
After planting the pear ground shed and mulched. The mulch will retain moisture, relieve from loosening and weeds, and will also play the role of additional organic feeding.
Zaveya pear is an unpretentious variety. For proper growth and development it needs to ensure regular watering, fertilizing and timely pruning.
Watering and feeding
Adult pear tree forms a powerful root system, so watering is carried out as the top layer of the soil dries out. Young tree is watered weekly for 20 l for each copy. The main rule of watering is to provide the tree with plenty of water during the formation of the fruit and after the leaf fall, when the plant is preparing for wintering. Watering is carried out in specially dug trenches around the trunk with a depth of 2 cm. After irrigation, the ditch is filled with nutrient soil and mulched.
If a young pear is planted in a nutrient soil, it is not fed in the first year. Next, carry out feeding several times a season:
- spring - nitrogenous fertilizers or organic matter;
- during flowering and fruiting fertilize with nitroammofoskoy;
- after harvest - phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Also, in early spring, before foliar budding, foliar feeding is carried out. The tree is sprayed with a solution: 0.5 kg of urea is diluted in 10 liters of warm water.
Complex mineral fertilizers are applied annually, and organic matter should be applied no more than 1 time in 3 years.Important! Fresh manure is not suitable for top dressing, as it can have a detrimental effect on the plant.
To obtain a stable crop, it is necessary to conduct an annual formative, sanitary and rejuvenating pruning.Important! If you do not prune, the garden pear will quickly run wild and will stop yielding large, tasty fruits.
Crown pear Zaveya form over 6 years.
- 1st year - remove the lower branches, the height of the trunk should be 40-50 cm from the ground. At a height of 90 cm from the headquarters leave 3 branches on each side. They should be the same in length, remove the extra. The conductor is shortened to 1/3 of the length.
- 2nd year - remove growths that appeared between the skeletal branches. Shoots grown after the lower tier, shortened.
- 3rd year - form 2 tier. To this end, in the spring before the buds swell on the upper stem branch of the lower tier, all growths are removed to a height of 45 cm under the ring. The branches of the second tier should be located between the intervals of the lower tier at a height of 25 cm so that they do not shade each other. The main shoots are shortened by 1/3 of the length, and the conductor is shortened by 20 cm.
- 4th year - the conductor is shortened to a lateral escape in order to suspend growth in height. Pruning of the tree is carried out at a height of 50 cm from the stem branch of the 2nd tier. All branches are cut to 1/3 of the length, and the increments between tiers are removed under the ring.
- 5th year - height of Zavea pear reaches 3.5-4 m. In order for the tree to stop growing, the conductor is cut above the upper skeletal branch. In a formed crown, stem branches of the 2nd order should be located 90 cm and 0.5 m apart from the conductor.
Sanitary pruning pear varieties Zaveya spend in the early spring before sap flow and in the fall, after leaf fall. To do this, remove the damaged, dry branches, as well as growing up and at an acute angle to the trunk. Trimming is carried out strictly under the ring, as the left stump can contribute to the spread of rot.
Rejuvenating pruning is carried out if the tree has ceased to produce large fruits. To this end, in the fall, a month before the onset of frost, branches are cut to 40 cm in length. Pruning makes it possible to wake up sleeping buds and form new branches. It is also necessary to shorten the conductor to the side branch. This procedure will allow the tree to redistribute nutrients, update the crown, resume fruiting and crop quality.
A whitewash will protect the bark from the winter and spring sun. To do this, use lime, diluted in warm water to the state of thick kefir. To protect the plant, process the trunk and eyelids lower tier.
Preparing for the winter
From the description it is clear that Zaveya pear is a frost-resistant variety, therefore, an adult plant does not need a shelter. To prepare the tree for winter, it is plentifully shed, fertilized with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, and the soil around the perimeter of the trunk circle is mulched with straw, pine cones, fallen leaves or sawdust.
A young plant, regardless of cold resistance, must be protected from frost. To do this, tie a tree trunk with coniferous spruce branches.
Zaveya pear is a self-productive variety, therefore pollinators are necessary for its abundant harvest. These varieties include: Bessemyanka and Lyubimitsa Yakovleva.
Fruiting grade comes 4 years after planting. Zavea pear has one peculiarity, it controls the optimal number of fruits. With a shortage of nutrients, it begins to dump excess crop. The fruit remaining on the tree grows large, juicy with few flaws.
Zaveya pear is a high-yielding variety. The first fruits with proper care are collected in the autumn, 4 years after planting. Yields depend on climatic conditions and crop care. On average, up to 50 kg of fruit can be removed from an adult tree. To the fruit lay as long as possible, they are removed from the branch in an immature form.Tip! For ripening pears are cleaned in a dark, cool room with good ventilation.
Diseases and pests
Zaveya pear is immune to many diseases, but if you leave it untimely, scab and moniliosis can appear.
Scab - a fungal disease that affects the leaves and fruits. Emerald spots appear on the leaf plate, which, without treatment, pass smoothly to the fruit. You can save the tree by spraying fungicides ("Chorus", "Trideks", "Merpan") or folk remedies (dry mustard, potassium permanganate or saline).
Monilioz - rotting fruit. When infected, 50% of the crop dies. The first symptom of the disease is the appearance of brown spot on undeveloped fruits. In dry and cold weather, the pear begins to mummify and turn black. Without treatment, the disease can turn into large, ripe fruits and manifest itself during storage and during long-term transportation.
In order not to run into problems, you must follow the rules of care and preventive measures:
- Regularly carry out watering, fertilizing and pruning.
- Harvesting of fallen leaves and rotted fruit.
- Removal of weeds, loosening of the pristvolny circle.
- Spring and autumn whitewashing the trunk.
Reviews of Zaveya pearIlyushin Igor Bogdanovich, 60 years old, I have been planted for a long time by BrestGrushi. Early and late varieties grow in the garden. I distinguish Zaveya pear from late ripening, as the variety is unpretentious, does not require shelter for the winter, brings a stable generous harvest, tasty and fragrant fruits. Despite the thin skin, the fruits are stored for a long time and are well transported over long distances. Alekseeva Alevtina Pavlovna, 65 years old, Smolensk Pear is a favorite fruit crop. I used to think that it can only be grown in regions with a warm climate, but recently I began to notice pear trees in neighboring gardens. I looked through the information on the Internet and chose the variety of Zaveya pear. Planted and not disappointed. The first harvest was small, but the following year gathered up to 10 kg of fruit. The main rule for a generous harvest is to respect the rules of planting and care, as well as timely pruning.
If you study the description of pear Zaveya, the cultivation will not be troublesome, but a fascinating affair. Since the variety is unpretentious, resistant to severe frosts and brings large, sweet fruit that can be used fresh and in conservation.