Farmers of Western Siberia and the Urals, engaged in the cultivation of sweet Bulgarian pepper in their plots (in greenhouses or greenhouses), most often recommend that novice gardeners pay attention to the early varieties of this crop. This is argued by the fact that in these climatic zones spring warming, as a rule, is late, and a cold rainy autumn with the first frosts may come in the middle of October. However, is it really, and why are early varieties of peppers planted in open ground sometimes yield worse yields, compared with mid-season and late ones.
What to look for when choosing a grade
Starting to look for "what you need," gardeners rush for information on the Internet, looking for the desired variety in numerous volumes of the State Register of Vegetable Growing. However, many varieties and hybrids included in the register and intended for cultivation in the unstable climate of the Urals are only theoretically suitable for obtaining good and stable yields.
When choosing the best sweet pepper for the regions of the Urals, you need to focus on the winter hardiness of the variety, its adaptability to a certain light zone and a short cool summer. All this can be initially laid in the hybrid by breeders, but the gardeners should observe the main set of conditions for the thermophilic sweet pepper themselves.
Here are just a few recommendations of farmers of the Urals, receiving on their plots early and mid-Ural sweet peppers:
Sprouting planting material
Despite some manufacturers' recommendations that the seeds should be started to germinate and harden in the month of February, for the Ural soils this event should be held no earlier than March 20. As soon as the seeds are full, sow them immediately.
Growing a strong disease-resistant seedlings
Hacked seeds are sown in opaque cups. Since the pepper root is too weak and easily injured, it is better if the planting material is planted in disposable peat containers. The second rule - in no case let the seedlings dry up, regularly watering seedlings. The air temperature in the room where the pepper rises should not fall below 25-260WITH.
Warm air and soil
Be sure to prepare the beds for transferring seedlings to open ground. If the soil is prepared and insulated correctly, the guarantee of high yields is guaranteed. At a time when the seedlings are already prepared for transfer, you need to put on the beds heated plastic bottles with water or natural stone, giving off heat at night and warming up in the sunlight during the day.
The same applies to air temperature. Repot the pepper in the open ground only when the temperature is guaranteed not to fall below 14-160C. In the process of growth, flowering and fruiting the ideal temperature regime - 260C. Mid-season and early varieties of pepper for the Urals love neutral soils. 2.5 weeks before transferring seedlings to open ground, fertilize the soil with compost.Attention! If the substrate is not prepared properly, and the earth is depleted, at best you will receive 1-2 fruits from one bush.
Watering and lighting
It is no secret that sweet bell pepper loves regular watering and direct natural light. The most effective way to retain moisture in the soil is mulching. Immediately after transferring the seedlings to a permanent place of growth - mulch the beds. The layer of mulch should not be less than 20 cm, so during the entire period of flowering and fruiting, add fresh under the bush. Pepper should not grow under the open scorching sun, but it is necessary to provide natural light throughout the daylight hours.Attention! On open ground, be sure to provide protection from strong gusty winds and drafts.
Formation of sweet pepper
The best varieties of pepper for the Urals require regular pinching. In order for the bush to be powerful and the plant to grow, remove the first flower that appears on it. Pinching will also need to be done after the formation of three or more ramifications, however, it should be done after full adaptation of the seedlings on the open ground and rooting it.
Forming the right crop also matters. Leave all the ovaries on the bush is not necessary, because the plant will give strength to the growing season of the fruit. There will be a lot of peppers, but there is no guarantee that all of them will have time to mature before the arrival of cold weather. Leave on the bush already appeared fruits, the rest of the ovary, if a lot of them - remove. Also pay attention to tall varieties of pepper - leaves are necessarily removed from the bottom of the stem during growth.
Experienced farmers of the Urals use for feeding a few basic types of mixtures and formulations. During the entire period of growth, the bushes are fed 3-5 times with ashes and about six times with any suitable bionastoem for this variety. This is quite enough for the culture to produce stable and tasty harvests.
In addition to these simple recommendations when growing fruit varieties of pepper in the regions of the Urals, pay attention to the regularity and frequency of watering. Do not let the soil dry out.
The best early varieties of sweet Bulgarian pepper for the Urals
The full period of the growing season is less than 100 days from the formation of the first shoots. The plant is a tall bush, in greenhouses and greenhouses growing up to 120 cm and above. When planting on open ground and in film shelters, requires support and garters.
The shape of the fruit is slightly elongated, with an average weight of up to 200 grams. The skin is dense, glossy, in the period of biological maturity has a bright red (closer to scarlet) color. Wall thickness - 7-8 mm. In the Urals, recommended for growing in greenhouses, but also feels good in open areas, if film protection from the wind is provided.
One more universal and early ripe grade which received deserved recognition from gardeners of the Urals. It is adapted for cultivation under film shelters and on open ground. The plant is a short shrub whose height does not exceed 80 cm, even in greenhouse conditions. Pepper has a cubic shape, with a wall thickness of 10 mm, and an average weight of one fruit is up to 200 grams.
Distinctive features of the variety "Edinho" - high yields, even at low temperatures and high soil moisture, associated with torrential rains. This is one of the few varieties whose seedlings do not have to be kept indoors. With a stable warm temperature planting material is sown directly into the ground.
Winnie the Pooh
It belongs to the early ripening varieties, with a full growing season on the open ground - up to 110 days. The plant is very small. The bush rarely rises above the ground than 35-40 cm. The fruits ripen together, and look very beautiful on the bushes in the form of scarlet bouquets. The mass of one pepper "Winnie the Pooh" - 50-70 grams, however, this does not affect the excellent taste of this variety.
Early ripe grade for cultivation in the Urals. From the first shoots to harvest, it does not take more than 115 days. The color of the fruits of sweet pepper “Yantar” is orange, whence the variety got its name. The plant is medium-sized - 80-90 cm, in greenhouse conditions it requires additional supports and garters.
Fruits are cone-shaped, large in size. The weight of one pepper is from 110 to 130 grams, and the wall thickness is 7-8 mm. "Yantar" refers to high-yielding varieties, however, throughout the entire period of fruiting requires compulsory fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers.
Surprisingly beautiful scarlet pepper, giving early and stable yields in film shelters and in open areas. The mass of one fruit in the period of full maturation reaches 120-140 grams, with a wall thickness - up to 8 mm. Fruits are juicy, have excellent taste, tolerate long-term storage and transportation.
Early ripe variety of sweet pepper, bred specifically for the northern regions of the country. The bush in the period of stunting does not exceed 30 cm, is compact. This quality of a grade allows to condense considerably landing of seedling on beds and greenhouses.
Fruits "Kolobok" have a flat, rounded shape, with an average weight of one pepper - up to 150 grams. Wall thickness 5-6 mm. The variety has a high and friendly yield. This is one of the few varieties, the fruits of which can be removed slightly unripe to give the plant the strength to cope with the ripening and growth of the remaining crop.
Early ripe grade of sweet pepper with low sprawling bushes and large fruits, painted in a rich dark red color. The average weight of one Dobrynya Nikitich pepper is 130-150 grams, and the wall thickness can be up to 10 mm.
The vegetation period is 110 days from the first seed sowing. The plant is resistant to TMV, root and fruit rot. It tolerates a slight drought or, conversely, overflow of soil on open ground. Fruits have juicy fragrant pulp, are universal. Well proven when canning and freezing for the winter.
Variety of Bulgarian sweet pepper, designed for tunnel shelters and open areas. The plant is a short-growing shrub, 45-50 cm tall. Fruits are cone-shaped with dense glossy skin, painted in dark red color. The average weight of one pepper is 130-140 grams, with a wall thickness of up to 8 mm.
The distinctive features of the variety "Vityaz" can be attributed to resistance to viral diseases, slight decreases in temperature on the soil, short-term drought.
Mid-season varieties of sweet peppers for the Urals
Pepper variety "Atlant" is adapted for cultivation in open ground and film tunnel shelters. The term of maturation of the crop is from 110 to 125 days. Fruits are even, conical in shape, and are colored red in biological ripeness. Variety refers to the large-fruited - the weight of one pepper "Atlant" - from 200 grams and above, with a wall thickness of 5-6 mm.
Distinctive features of the sweet pepper variety "Atlant" - resistance to sharp fluctuations in temperature, high taste.
Mid-season variety with a growing season of fruit - up to 130 days. Fruits are large, cone-shaped. The average weight of one pepper “Bogatyr” is 200-250 grams, with a length of 15-17 cm. The bush is medium-sized, spreading. Under greenhouse conditions, it is recommended to tie up the plant.
Distinctive features of the variety - resistance to TMV, fungal infections of the soil, the preservation of quality characteristics and presentation during long-term storage and transportation. The variety enjoys great popularity among gardeners in the Urals, especially if the crops are removed for canning or sale.
Red and yellow bull
These are mid-ripening varieties of peppers, differing only in the color of the fruit. Prism-shaped pepper, very large in size. The mass of one fruit in the period of full ripening can reach 220 grams, with a wall thickness of up to 8 mm. The growing season begins at 110-115 days from the sowing of the seed.
Red and yellow ox are distinguished by high yields. With one bush in August or September, you can collect up to 8-10 kg of crop.
Mid-season variety with ripening period - up to 120 days. Bush srednerosly, and even in greenhouses does not grow above 90 cm. The fruits are cylindrical in shape, small. The weight of one pepper "Merchant" is 100-120 grams.
Distinctive features of the variety “Merchant” are that when planting seedlings in the ground in the middle or at the end of May, the harvest can be collected from the beginning of September to the first cooling of the soil. The plant tolerates a sudden cold snap and a slight drought. Up to 4-5 kg of crop is removed from one bush.
Useful tips and tricks
And a few more useful tips for those who grow peppers in the summer cottages and kitchen gardens of the Urals:
- It is necessary to transfer seedlings if the air temperature on the street stably keeps around 150C. First, cover the night with a film or spunbond;
- Resistance to low night temperatures can be added to the plant by means such as Zircon or Appin.
By following all the necessary recommendations for growing peppers in the Urals, you can achieve quite good results and grow a tasty and big crop. In addition to the varieties and cultivation of sweet pepper in the Urals, watch the video: