Tomatoes are crops that are susceptible to fungal diseases. The most effective method of dealing with such lesions is Bordeaux liquid. It can be made at home with the obligatory observance of technology. When processing tomato Bordeaux liquid, it is important to adhere to security measures.
When the solution is applied
Bordeaux liquid is used to combat blight, strike, brown spot. These diseases are spread by a fungus that infects tomato leaves, stems, root system, ripening fruits.
Phytophthora has the following manifestations:
- the appearance of oozing spots on the foliage, which eventually become darker;
- white bloom on the other side of the sheet;
- the leaves of the tomatoes subsequently dry out;
- fruits become brown in color and become unsuitable for consumption.
When phytophthora need to take action immediately on the use of Bordeaux fluids, because the disease quickly affects other seedlings.
Strick is another dangerous disease that can cover the whole plant. It is diagnosed on a number of grounds:
- the presence of brick spots on tomatoes;
- the plant develops more slowly and languishes;
- rot and yellow spots appear on the fruit.
Brown spots are subject to tomatoes growing in the greenhouse. The disease is determined by the following symptoms:
- on top of the seedling there are spots of light shade that grow and turn brown;
- brown spots are formed on the lower part of the plant.
Important! Before treating plants in the greenhouse, all affected parts should be removed and burned.
Apply Bordeaux mixture by spraying tomatoes. Due to the high toxicity of the substance obtained, it is necessary to observe the procedure for its preparation and further use.
The solution helps in the prevention of viral diseases of tomatoes. At the same time the established proportions and manufacturing techniques are observed.
During the preparation of the solution must be strictly respect the proportions. The most commonly used mixture with a Bordeaux liquid concentration of 0.75% and 1%.
The sequence of actions for obtaining a solution of any type is identical. Only the proportions of the constituent substances change.
0.75% solution of the drug includes:
- 10 liters of water;
- 0.075 kg of copper sulphate;
- 0.1 kg of quicklime (CaO).
For 1% solution will require:
- 10 liters of water;
- 0.1 kg of copper sulphate;
- 0.15 kg of quicklime (CaO).
Where to find components
Copper sulphate and quicklime can be purchased at specialty stores for the garden. Substances are delivered packed in packages. It is best to buy immediately the necessary volume, which can be immediately used to prepare Bordeaux mixture.
Quicklime has a crystalline structure. It is obtained after calcining limestone rocks. Lime requires caution when working, because it has a second class of safety.Attention! Quicklime is contained in a dry room, where the risk of moisture penetration is excluded.
Copper sulphate comes in the form of bright blue crystals. If the shelf life of the powder exceeds two years, the solution will not have the desired effect. Keep it in a cool dry place, protected from the sun.
What is needed for the solution
To obtain a solution of Bordeaux mixture, you need to prepare in advance:
- two containers (5 and 10 liters);
- gauze for filtering;
- a nail or any other metal object;
- kitchen scales, if the components are purchased in larger quantities;
- stick made of wood for mixing the solution.
Important! For the preparation of the mixture will not fit buckets of iron or aluminum, as well as galvanized items.
For mixing components used containers of glass, wood, plastic. It is allowed to use enamelware without chips.
How to dilute the Bordeaux mixture describes the following procedure:
- In a five-liter bucket need to pour 1 liter of hot water.
- Dilute the copper sulfate in water in the required amount.
- Stir the mixture thoroughly with a stick, add cold water to fill the bucket completely.
- A bucket of 10 liters is filled with 2 liters of cold water, after which quicklime is added.
- Mix well to offset lime. Due to the interaction of CaO and water, so-called lime milk is formed.
- In the second bucket pour cold water to half the volume.
- Copper sulphate is carefully poured from the first bucket into a container with lime milk.
- The quality of the solution is checked. The result is a turquoise solution without flakes and impurities.
- The solution is filtered through gauze, folded in several layers. For these purposes, suitable fine sieve.
- The diluted Bordeaux mixture can be used to treat tomatoes in the greenhouse.
The order of preparation of the mixture should be observed in this sequence. In case of violation of the technology, the solution will not only lose its properties, but may also become dangerous for tomatoes.
During the work it is strictly prohibited to:
- add lime milk to the mixture with vitriol, then the resulting product will be ineffective;
- mix the components in a dry form, and then add water;
- apply substances of different temperatures (they must be equally cold).
In the case of proper compliance with the proportions and technology Bordeaux liquid has the following characteristics:
- consistency, resembling a suspension;
- bright blue color;
- reaction to the addition of alkali.
If the tool has a high acidity, then the leaves of plants will be damaged. As a result, a yellow mesh appears on the tomatoes, or the fruits crack. If the alkaline reaction is pronounced, the drug will not hold on the green parts of plants.
It is allowed to have a precipitate in the solution, which is formed with an excess of lime. This usually happens when the proportions are broken. On the properties of Bordeaux liquid precipitation does not affect, and this solution is completely ready for use.
You can check the acidity of the solution in the following ways:
- litmus test (should not change color);
- phenolphthalein paper (becomes crimson).
If there is no red bloom on the object, then everything is cooked correctly. Then additionally dilute the solution with milk of lime.
Bordeaux liquid uniformly sprayed tomatoes in the greenhouse. It is recommended to choose a special sprayer with a small tip.
When choosing the time for work, two nuances are taken into account:
- the procedure is not carried out if there are plants near the place of processing that are ready to harvest in the next 2-3 weeks;
- if 2 weeks are left before ripening of tomatoes, the solution is prohibited to use;
- processing is postponed during flowering and the formation of the fruit of the plant.
Processing Bordeaux fluid exposed parts of the plant, which appeared signs of the disease. The solution should evenly cover the leaves and stems of tomatoes.
During the work you need to ensure that the solution does not fall on the skin. In the future, before eating tomatoes, they should be thoroughly washed.
Processing intensity is as follows:
- the total number of procedures per season should not exceed four;
- To treat tomatoes, use 1% product or solution with a lower concentration;
- the procedure is carried out three times with an interval of up to 10 days;
- when a disease appears on tomato seedlings, they are treated 10-14 days before planting in the greenhouse or the ground.
The use of Bordeaux liquid solution has a number of undoubted advantages:
- high efficiency;
- suitable for combating a wide range of tomato diseases;
- action duration up to 30 days;
- the quality of processing is monitored (after the solution reaches the plant, its parts acquire a blue tint);
- the solution remains on the leaves of tomatoes, even after watering and rain;
- availability in horticultural stores;
- safe for insects pollinating tomatoes.
When using the solution you need to take into account certain nuances:
- the need to respect the proportions of substances and spray technology;
- the likelihood of tomato fruit falling after processing remains;
- during repeated spraying, the earth accumulates copper, which negatively affects the growth of tomatoes;
- an overdose damages the leaves of tomatoes, the fruits crack, the development of new shoots slows down.
To prevent chemicals from damaging the soil and the health of the gardener, you need to take precautions:
- when interacting with the mixture, protective equipment is used (rubber gloves, respirators, goggles, etc.);
- when using the solution it is forbidden to smoke, eat food or drinks;
- The processing of tomatoes with Bordeaux mixture is not carried out directly before harvesting tomatoes;
- after work, wash hands and face thoroughly;
- No children or animals should be present during the procedure.
Attention! Copper sulfate causes eye irritation, sneezing, chills, cough, muscle weakness.
If these symptoms appear, you need to call an ambulance crew. If the substance enters the body through the respiratory tract, then diuretic and antipyretic drugs are taken.
If the solution comes into contact with the skin, the affected area is thoroughly washed with water. In cases of poison penetration into the body, the stomach is washed with food and activated charcoal is taken.
Bordeaux mixture is effective in controlling fungal lesions of tomatoes. Her cooking is strictly according to the recipe. The solution is suitable for use in greenhouse and outdoor conditions. The resulting mixture has a toxic effect, therefore, necessarily requires compliance with precautions. The solution not only allows you to cope with diseases of tomatoes, but also serves as a means of their prevention.