Pepper is a thermophilic nightshade. In our country it is grown everywhere, in the southern regions - in the open field, in the north - in closed polycarbonate greenhouses. Pepper is in high demand not only because of the excellent taste, but also due to the high content of vitamins, trace elements and other nutrients. Suffice it to say that vitamin C contains more than lemon, and vitamin A contains no less than carrots. In addition, pepper can be called a dietary product - 100 g of vegetable contains only 25 kcal.
Although this crop is quite demanding for growing conditions, if you wish, you can get a good harvest even in regions with a cool climate. True, for this you need to comply with agricultural engineering, graphics feedings, in time to deal with pests. Feeding peppers in the greenhouse is not very different from its fertilizers in the open field, but has its own characteristics.
Pepper requirements for growing conditions
To create pepper suitable conditions - half the success for obtaining a high yield. What does he need for successful growing season?
- The soil should be light, fertile, with a slightly acidic, close to neutral reaction.
- Light day for pepper should be no more than 8 hours. It requires warm soil with a temperature of 18-24 degrees and well heated air - 22-28 degrees. If it drops to 15, the pepper will stop developing, and will wait for more favorable weather.
- It is advisable to water the pepper often, but gradually. If possible, install drip irrigation. Water for irrigation needs warm, about 24 degrees, but not lower than 20.
- Feeding should be regular, with a high content of potassium.
It is equally important to know what conditions will obviously lead to failure when growing peppers:
- Dense soil is contraindicated in this culture - its roots do not like damage, are restored for a long time, it is advisable to mulch the earth and not to loosen it. In order for the root system of the pepper to receive the necessary amount of oxygen for life, the soil must be water- and breathable.
- When planting seedlings can not be buried or replanted from place to place.
- Temperatures above 35 degrees, differences between day and night temperatures of more than 15 degrees also does not contribute to the normal development of pepper.
- Acidic soil, fresh manure, high doses of mineral, especially nitrogen fertilizers are guaranteed not to give you a good harvest.
- Long daylight hours inhibits pepper, and direct sunlight can cause burns of the fruit.
Thickened landing - a difficult question. In the open ground, they make sense, because the bushes mutually shadow each other and protect the pepper from sunburn, but contribute to the development of diseases - it is important to maintain the correct distance.
Features of growing peppers in greenhouses
Of course, the most delicious pepper grows in the open air, under the real sun, and not under artificial light. But our cool climate limits the choice of varieties that can bear fruit in the open field.
We grow sweet pepper of Bulgarian selection and Dutch hybrids. Bulgarian pepper is completely edible in the stage of technical ripeness, able to ripen and stain in its inherent color, while in storage. Dutch hybrids are badly delivered, in the stage of technical ripeness they have bad taste and it is impossible to remove them before the first smears of varietal color appear.
To pepper reached technical maturity, it needs 75-165 days from the emergence of seedlings, and biological ripeness occurs in 95-195 days. Naturally, only early-ripening thin-walled varieties of the Bulgarian selection and only some Dutch hybrids specially bred for these conditions can ripen outside the greenhouse in the north-west.
Polycarbonate greenhouses with artificial lighting, irrigation, heating can significantly expand the list of cultivated varieties and get a harvest even late hybrids, characterized by particularly large size and thick walls. The main thing is that these varieties and hybrids are suitable for cultivation in protected ground.
The benefits of growing peppers in greenhouses
In the north-west, planting seedlings in a greenhouse can no longer worry about temperature fluctuations or the light of the day - all the necessary conditions for pepper, if necessary, can be created artificially. It is easier to deal with pests or create the necessary moisture.
Feeding peppers in a polycarbonate greenhouse is not too different from fertilizing this crop in open ground if you are accustomed to follow the requirements of agricultural technology. The plant needs the same nutrients at certain phases of development, regardless of the place of growth. It is necessary to make a schedule feeding and strictly follow it.
In polycarbonate greenhouses, the pepper begins to yield earlier and ends later; there it makes sense to grow tall varieties with long periods of fruiting. The crop that can be harvested from one square meter in the open field is much less than that obtained by greenhouse cultivation, where often 10-18 kg of fruit from a bush is dependent on the variety.
Like all plant organisms, pepper needs nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements. He needs the highest doses of nitrogen during the active growth of green mass, then, during flowering and fruiting, its introduction somewhat reduces.
Phosphorus and potassium are necessary for pepper for flowering and fruiting, they are consumed by the plant during the entire growing season. That's just the phosphorus this vegetable needs a little, and it consumes potassium in rather large doses, and prefers chlorine-free compounds.
Of the trace elements pepper especially needs magnesium and calcium, they are given throughout the entire growing season. Trace elements are poorly absorbed when introduced under the root. Pepper best of all perceives them at extra root top dressings.
Organic is useful to the plant throughout the season, but it is better to give it in small doses. It is only necessary to remember that the pepper does not perceive the fresh manure badly and should be given in the form of infusions.
Feeding pepper in closed ground
Top dressing is brought in by preparing the soil, during the growing season under the root and on the leaf by spraying.
In polycarbonate greenhouses, fertilizing of soil should be started in the autumn - at least 0.5 compost buckets are added for each square meter for digging, and before planting seedlings in the same area:
- potassium sulfate or other chlorine-free potassium fertilizer - 1 tsp;
- superphosphate - 1 tbsp. spoon;
- ash - 1 cup;
- Well-rotted humus - 0.5 buckets.
It is even better to replace the fertilizers from the list above with a mineral complex specifically designed for growing peppers, making it according to the instructions. After this, the bed should be shallowly dug, shed with warm water and covered with a film, which should be removed only before planting the seedlings.
Root top dressing
It is best to feed the pepper with organic fertilizer - this will provide an opportunity to get environmentally friendly products.
If you have the opportunity, dilute the mullein bucket with 3-4 buckets of warm water and let it stand for a week. In the same way you can prepare the infusion of bird droppings or green fertilizer.
Comment! When fermenting green fertilizer, the ratio of 1: 3-4 is not necessary to observe. You can simply fill the existing container with weed and fill it with water.
Further, when feeding pepper prepared infusions diluted as follows:
- mullein - 1:10;
- bird droppings - 1:20;
- green fertilizer - 1: 5;
add a glass of ash to a bucket of solution, stir well and pour it under the root.
The first dressing is given approximately two weeks after planting in the greenhouse seedlings, when new leaves appear, spending 0.5 liters per bush. Then pepper fertilized every 2 weeks, increasing the amount of fertilizer to 1-2 liters.
If you do not use organics, you can dilute with water special fertilizers for peppers and tomatoes according to the instructions. On a bucket of water take:
- 40 g of superphosphate;
- 30 g of potassium sulfate;
- 20 g of ammonium nitrate.
During the vegetative season, the pepper is fed with mineral fertilizers 3-4 times.
- The first feed. Two weeks after planting, 0.5 l of fertilizer is applied under each bush.
- The second feed. At the time of the mass fruit set - 1-2 liters at the root, depending on the size of the bush.
- The third dressing. Simultaneously with the beginning of the collection of fruits - 2 liters of fertilizer at the root.
If there is a need or the fruiting period is delayed, it is advisable to give a fourth dressing.Comment! It is best to alternate the fertilizers, leaving the timing of mineral fertilizing unchanged, and between them use organic.
Trace elements are not vital components of nutrition for peppers grown as an annual plant, their deficiency simply does not have time to become critical in one season. But they depend on the health of the plant, the duration of fruiting and the taste of the fruit.
Trace elements are poorly absorbed when fertilizing in the soil, they are given when foliar feeding. It is best to buy a chelate complex and apply it according to the instructions.
Foliar top dressing is also called fast fertilizer, if you notice a lack of some kind of battery and you need to urgently correct the situation, spraying will help. In the greenhouse, foliar dressing can be done every 2 weeks, combining them, if necessary, with preventive treatments for pests and diseases. It is useful to add a vial of epine, zircon, or another natural stimulant to the working solution.
Attention! Metal oxides are not combined with anything, they are used separately.
If you grow organic products, as an extra root top dressing, you can use ash extract, in which, in addition to phosphorus and potassium, all trace elements are present. A glass of powder, pour 2 liters of boiling water, let stand overnight, then add to 10 liters, strain and can be sprayed.
Fertilizer pepper in a polycarbonate greenhouse is not too different from fertilizing in open ground, just with the proper organization of the workflow, everything here can be done faster and the effect get better. Have a good harvest!