Growing tomatoes in Siberia has its own characteristics that need to be considered when planting this crop. The region is characterized by unpredictable weather and frequent temperature changes. To obtain a good harvest in the open field carefully selected varieties of tomatoes, prepare the soil and regularly fertilize.
For planting in Siberia, selected varieties that can withstand the conditions of this region. These include tomatoes that are resistant to spring and autumn cooling. In open ground, plants should tolerate serious temperature drops. Most of these varieties derived from breeding.
The following types of tomatoes are selected for planting in Siberia:
- Ultra-fast is a compact bush that produces medium-sized fruits. Tomatoes ripen 70 days after emergence. The plant does not require special care and adapts well to external conditions.
- Demidov - mid-season variety, forming shtambovy bushes. The fruits have good taste properties and ripen after removal from the bush.
- Siberian heavyweight is a variety of early ripening up to 80 cm in height. Fruits are formed weighing 0.4–0.6 kg, therefore the plant is tied up during fruiting. The low yield of these tomatoes is compensated by the large weight of the fruit.
- Abakan pink - a variety of medium maturity, which is characterized by long-term fruiting. The plant requires a garter and the formation of 2 stems. Tomato height is 80 cm. Variety is valued for its high yield and taste.
- Kemerovo is an early ripening variety that takes 100 days to ripen the first fruits. The height of the bushes is up to 0.5 m. The plant does not require the formation of a bush and pasynkovaniya, well tolerates difficult weather conditions.
- Barnaul canning is an early ripe undersized variety, giving dense round-shaped fruits. Fruiting lasts 2 months. The grade is intended for conservation.
- The grandee is a medium-early tomato, bringing the first crop 100 days after germination. The height of the bush does not exceed 0.7 m. The average weight of the fruit is 0.2 kg, some specimens reach 0.6 kg.
Cultivation of the soil for planting tomatoes begins in the fall. During this period, you need to remove the remnants of the previous culture and carefully dig up the soil. Planting of plants is allowed to be carried out on the places where zucchini, cucumbers, beets, corn, carrots, legumes were previously grown.
Tomatoes prefer neutral soil, which is distinguished by good moisture and breathability. Compost, ash, and humus must be brought into the soil.
Tip! A bed with tomatoes is placed in a sunny area where there is no shading.
Landings should not be exposed to excessive moisture. Otherwise, the development of plants will slow down and fungal diseases will appear.
In the spring, mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil to a depth of 20 cm. Up to 10 g of urea, 50 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium chloride are recommended to be used per square meter of beds.
For planting tomato beds are located from north to south. Between the beds leave at least 1 m, and between the rows - up to 0.7 m. Borts up to 5 cm are required. Beds can be divided into sections up to 0.5 m, in each of which two shrubs are planted.
To grow tomatoes in open ground in Siberia, tomato seedlings are first formed, which is then transferred to a permanent place.
In late March, seeds should be soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes. If plant seeds float, they are not used for planting.
Then the remaining material is wrapped in a damp cloth, then left for several days. Seeds that are most active can be planted in small containers with soil.Important! Seeds are placed in the soil to a depth of 1-2 cm, then watered with warm water.
For seedlings, it is better to use purchased soil. If the earth is taken from the garden, then it must first be calcined in the oven or microwave for 10 minutes. Additionally, before planting the plants, the earth is decontaminated with a solution of potassium permanganate.
From the top of the tank you can cover it with a film in order to provide young plants with high humidity and temperature. For germination tomatoes need a temperature regime above 25 degrees. If the soil is dry, then it needs to be watered abundantly.
The first shoots appear after 4-6 days. If necessary, equipped with additional lighting. The length of daylight hours for tomatoes is 16 hours. On a sunny day, when the air warms up, seedlings are carried out to the balcony.Attention! After 1.5 months, the plants can be planted in the ground.
Between the bushes leave a distance of 40 cm. The landing is made on a cool day, when there is no wind and direct sunlight.
When transferring tomatoes to open ground, the stem is buried by 2 cm, which contributes to the formation of new roots in the plant. If the likelihood of spring frosts remains, then the landings are covered with a film or a special material.
Proper care of tomatoes allows you to get a good harvest in a Siberian climate. Plants require regular watering, mulching or loosening the soil. Nutrient intake is provided by feeding tomatoes. Special attention is paid to protective measures aimed at combating diseases and pests.
When growing tomatoes need to ensure a moderate flow of moisture. Its excess negatively affects the development of plants and provokes the spread of diseases.
Tomatoes are able to endure a short drought. In this situation, the moisture is introduced constantly, but in small parts. With intensive watering, cracking of fruits will occur.Tip! When watering water should not fall on the foliage and flowers of plants.
It is not recommended to water the planting of cold water from a hose. It is better to pre-fill the water in the tank and leave them warm in the sun. If necessary, they add warm water. Watering plants in the morning or evening.
In open ground, tomatoes are watered after moisture is fully absorbed. Do not allow overdrying of the soil. The frequency of irrigation is adjusted for precipitation. On average, tomatoes are watered once a week.
Low-growing plants need 2-3 liters of water, while tall tomatoes may require up to 10 liters. The first 2 weeks after planting is not recommended to water the plants.Important! When the first fruits appear, the need of tomatoes in moisture increases, so the plants are watered more often.
On a large plot you can equip drip irrigation. For this purpose, a piping system is used to ensure a uniform flow of moisture to the plants. Drip system allows you to track the flow of water for tomatoes.
Loosening or mulching
After each watering is loosening the soil. The procedure helps to warm the soil, improves the penetration of moisture and nutrients. This removes weeds that interfere with the normal development of tomatoes.
The first loosening is done immediately after planting the tomatoes. Then the procedure is repeated every 2 weeks. The depth of soil loosening is up to 3 cm.
Together with loosening can spud tomatoes. Hilling promotes the growth of the root system of plants and strengthens the planting.
Mulching is to create a protective layer above the ground surface. This procedure increases the yield, accelerates the ripening of fruits, protects the root system of tomatoes from moisture loss. Mulch soil does not require loosening and weeding.Tip! For tomatoes, select mulch from straw or compost.
The organic layer retains heat and moisture for plants, providing additional feeding of tomatoes. For these purposes, suitable mowed grass, which is thoroughly dried. Periodically mulch layer will rot, so it needs to be updated.
Regular feeding provides tomatoes with nutrients responsible for the growth of green mass, the formation of ovaries and fruits.
Tomatoes require fertilization at the following stages of development:
- after planting;
- before flowering;
- with the appearance of the ovary;
- in the process of fruit ripening.
The first feeding is done two weeks after the transfer of plants to open ground. For her preparing a solution consisting of superphosphate (40 g) and potassium sulfate (10 g). The components dissolve in 10 liters of water, after which the tomatoes are watered under the root.
The treatment is repeated until the inflorescence of the plants appears. When ovaries appear in tomatoes, you can prepare a yeast dressing. This will require 10 g of dry yeast and 1 tbsp. l sugars that mix and leave for a few hours. Then in the mixture add water in a ratio of 1:10 and water the plants.
In the period of fruiting prepare solutions containing phosphorus. At 5 liters of water will require 1 tbsp. l superphosphate and liquid sodium humate.
Feed the tomatoes can be a solution based on ash. A bucket of water will require 0.2 kg of wood ash. The solution is infused for 5 hours, then filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3. The resulting plant is watered under the root.
To accelerate the flow of nutrients will help foliar feeding. For its preparation, mineral and organic substances are used.
During the flowering period, tomatoes are sprayed with a solution containing boric acid. 1 g of boric acid is taken per liter of water.Important! Spraying of plants is performed in cloudy weather, when there is no direct exposure to the sun.
Another method of spraying is the use of superphosphate. For 1 liter of water requires 2 tbsp. l this substance. Means insist 10 hours, then diluted with water in the ratio of 1:10.
Between treatments make a break for up to 10 days. Sheet processing should be alternated with fertilization at the root.
Protection against diseases and pests
Violation of the rules of planting and caring for tomatoes contributes to the development of diseases and the appearance of pests. The following rules will help protect plants in Siberia in the greenhouse and open field:
- avoid thickened landings;
- crop rotation;
- timely watering and fertilization;
- prophylactic treatment.
Tomatoes are prone to phytophthora, powdery mildew, brown and white spot. Most diseases are spread in a fungal way with increased humidity of the environment.
When the first symptoms appear, the plants are treated with fungicides: "Fitosporin", "Quadris", "Ridomil", "Bravo". In rainy summer, it is recommended to handle planting every two weeks as a preventive measure.Tip! The use of drugs is terminated 14 days before harvest.
For the prevention of diseases of tomatoes, you can use traditional methods. One of them is spraying the plants with a solution containing 1 l of milk, 15 drops of iodine and a bucket of water. The tool prevents the penetration of harmful microbes in plant tissue.
The most damage to landings is caused by aphid, whitefly, polar bear, spider mite. Insecticides are used for protection against insects - “Zolon”, “Sherpa”, “Konfidor”.
To combat insects are widely used folk remedies. Between the rows with tomatoes you can pour a little wood ash, additionally provides plants with useful minerals. Between rows with tomatoes, you can plant onions and garlic, which deter pests.
For cultivation in Siberia, selected varieties that are resistant to cooling and temperature extremes. Most of these varieties are bred specifically for this region, so the plants are adapted to the harsh conditions. Under the landing choose a well-lit place. High yield of tomatoes can be achieved through proper soil preparation, fertilization and irrigation.
The cultivation of tomatoes in Siberia is described in the video: