Some varieties of garlic are successfully grown in the cool climate of the Siberian region. This takes into account the requirements for soil treatment and the subsequent care of plants. In order to determine the optimal time when garlic can be harvested in Siberia, the peculiarities of cultivation are taken into account depending on weather conditions and the time of its ripening.
Varieties for growing in a cool climate
For planting on the Siberian land are selected varieties with increased resistance to disease and cold. The following varieties of garlic have a good development and yield in this region:
- "Siberian". It is often planted in this region. The shape of the bulbs of this variety is rounded-flat, with a slight taper up, weighing from 19 to 28 g. Top scales with a grayish-purple hue. If the plants were planted in the fall, then the first shoots appear in March. Each bulb has an average of 4 cloves mauve.
- Variety garlic "Novosibirsk 1" is characterized by increased resistance to winter cold. The bulbs on average reach 19 grams. Their shape is almost round, with an upper layer of pale pink flakes. In one onion there are up to 10 teeth with a semi-sharp taste. With one square meter of area you can get up to 1.4 kg of the crop of this variety. The positive characteristic of the Novosibirsk 1 garlic is its resistance to fusarium.
- The semi-sharp variety “Alcor” is a winter crop with a high yield. It is grown both on household plots, and in industrial scales. Up to 3.6 tons of garlic is harvested per hectare. Bulbs "Alcor" can grow up to 36 g. Each contains up to 5 cloves. Differs in good keeping quality and disease resistance.
- The Siberian variety Skif ripens 95 days after planting. Bulbs weighing up to 29 g. Up to 0.8 kg of bulbs can be collected per square meter. Scales rather dense with a white-lilac shade. Successfully resists bacteriosis and white rot.
- In the mid-ripening variety Sir-10, the bulb has a round-round shape, weighing up to 30 g. Each one consists of 9 teeth of medium density. The variety has increased winter hardiness and ability to resist diseases. Popular variety for use in conservation. The taste is quite spicy. “Sire-10” badly resists the effects of bacterial rot. The growing season is approximately 87 days. 0.43 kg of garlic is collected from one square meter.
- Variety "Autumn" - universal. The bulbs are large, weighing up to 41 g. The scales are purple, and the teeth are cream-colored. The bulb has 4 cloves. This variety is considered early maturing. It has good winter hardiness and high yield. In areas of Siberia, it is practiced planting after harvesting winter crops at the beginning of the summer season.
- Variety "Bashkir-85" with a flat-round shape of the fruit. The bulbs are very large, weighing up to 70 g. Resistant to diseases. It is usually grown in industrial quantities. From one hectare can collect up to 70 tons. To determine when this garlic can be harvested in Siberia, note the day of germination, as it reaches technical ripeness at 90 days after this point.
- Gardekovsky garlic is distinguished by good winter hardiness, but low yield. It is possible to collect only 3 tons from 1 hectare. The growing season is about 85 days.
- Variety "Reliable" tolerates frosty months. He has an average degree of maturation. The bulbs are large, 70 g. This class has very good keeping quality, it can be stored for up to 11 months.
In order to determine the necessary time for planting winter garlic in Siberia, the need to root it before the onset of cold days is taken into account. The optimal period for planting is from the end of September until the first days of October, and about 45 days remain until frost. If planted earlier, then leaf germination and reduced plant resistance to winter temperatures are possible.
Planting of winter garlic with bulbs grown at the ends of the arrows is carried out in the winter, and next year they are not dug, but they are allowed to winter again in the soil. Only a year later, fully formed garlic with several cloves or onions consisting of one large head are obtained. This type of planting garlic is most popular in Siberia.
It is wrong to believe that time does not matter when to remove winter garlic in Siberia. It is unforgivable to do this earlier or just a week later. Being in the ground for an extra couple of days can negatively affect keeping quality. The main condition is that the vegetable is fully ripe. You must be able to determine when to start digging. Excessive time spent in the soil heads leads to the fact that the bulb begins to decay, and the scales easily exfoliate.Attention! Digging garlic ahead of time will cause the bulbs to lose moisture and dry out.
For the Cathedral of Garlic, planted before the winter in the Siberian region, the optimal date is the second half of July. At this time, the seed box opens at the ends of the arrows.
Spring garlic is planted in Siberia from the second half of April to May. Unlike winter varieties, they do not shoot arrows. Spring garlic is stored better than planted in autumn.
For faster germination, the garlic is soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate, wrapped in a cloth moistened with water and placed in a refrigerator for 2-3 days.
Time to dig spring garlic usually accounts for 2 weeks after the start of harvesting winter varieties. This occurs from the first half of August and may continue until September 15. The term varies depending on the growing season of the variety (100-125 days), the time they are planted in the ground, as well as the weather conditions and care during cultivation. The prolonged heat leads to the fact that the harvest is carried out earlier than usual terms.
Signal when digging winter garlic in Siberia can serve as the formation of cracks in the ground in the garden. Dug out bulbs should be removed under a shed for drying for a period of 2 weeks, after that the stump is cut to 2-3 cm.
It is not always recommended to break off the arrows from garlic. Some of the varieties react poorly to such a procedure and, after removing the arrow, the bulbs cease to gain mass. The varieties of garlic brought to the Siberian region from Asia do not tolerate such a procedure, but in local varieties, after the shoots are broken, the onions gain from 10 to 15% of the weight.
The term when it is necessary to dig up garlic planted in springtime is determined by its appearance. This period usually begins from the last week of August to September 10. The leaves by this time become yellow, and the neck of the false stem softens. When digging the bulb, must be sturdy, fully formed and free from damage.
You can focus on the lunar calendar or the weather. Cleaning should be done only in dry weather. The bulbs are podkapyvayutsya with forks and remain in the garden until they dry.A warning! To ensure shelf life, one of the basic conditions is not to damage the integrity of the heads.
If the weather is very sultry or it is raining, then the harvest is entered under the shed to dry it. This process is very important for planting the crop. To keep garlic easier, its roots are shortened, leaving 2 cm each, and 7-8 cm from the stem, so that you can braid or bundle the bulbs and hang the bundle on the wall.
After dug up garlic, use 2 ways to save it in the winter: warm and cold. For thermal storage, garlic is laid out in fabric bags or cardboard boxes, and placed in a dark place with a cool temperature. For cold storage use a place in the refrigerator or cellar, where the temperature is not higher than +5 degrees.
Sometimes combine these two ways. After six months of storage in a warm room, garlic is lowered into the basement or placed in a refrigerator for 2 months. This stimulates the growth of planting material after its landing in the soil.